HIV Window Period | STD TESTING SINGAPORE™
HIV Window Period | STD TESTING SINGAPORE™ @stdtestingsingapore_com: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) window period, Singapore. Private & confidential service.
Come to sunny Singapore to have your testing and treatment. Singapore Ministry of Health registered general practice (GP) clinic:
| SHIM CLINIC|
STD TESTING SINGAPORE™
168 Bedok South Avenue 3 #01-473
Tel: (+65) 6446 7446
Fax: (+65) 6449 7446
24hr Answering Tel: (+65) 6333 5550
Web: HIV Window Period | STD TESTING SINGAPORE™
| Opening Hours |
Monday to Friday: 9 am to 3 pm, 7 pm to 11 pm
Saturday & Sunday: 7 pm to 11 pm
Public Holidays: Closed
Last registration: one hour before closing time.
Walk-in clinic. Appointments not required.
Bring NRIC, Work Pass or Passport for registration.
Table of Contents HIV window period is the time from HIV infection until a HIV Test can detect any change. Within the HIV window period, the HIV Test would be negative. During this period, the HIV viral load is extremely high, thus making the person highly infectious.
References HIV is the abbreviation for the human immunodeficiency virus, which causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
- 4 weeks after exposure, a negative 4th generation HIV ELISA Test "is very reassuring / highly likely to exclude HIV infection."
- 12 weeks after exposure, a negative 3rd generation HIV ELISA Test "would definitively exclude HIV infection."
HIV symptoms which may present in acute HIV infection: These are nonspecific symptoms and can present with other infections; consequently, they are unreliable indicators of HIV infection.
Remember, there is no HIV cure.
HIV ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test generations:
References HIV rapid test (20 minutes to results) Two types are available:
- 1st generation: HIV-1 IgG antibody
- 2nd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG antibodies
- 3rd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies
- 4th generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies and HIV p24 antigen
Note: If the clinic attendance is only for the HIV rapid test, then consultation fees are not added.
References HIV PCR (polymerase chain reaction) NAT (nucleic acid test) HIV Risk (2009 figures)
Estimated HIV transmission risk per exposure for specific activities and events
|Activity ||Risk-per-exposure |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in high-income countries ||0.04% (1:2380) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in high-income countries ||0.08% (1:1234) |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in low-income countries ||0.38% (1:263) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in low-income countries ||0.30% (1:333) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner is asymptomatic ||0.07% (1:1428) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner has late-stage disease ||0.55% (1:180) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner unknown status ||0.27% (1:370) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner HIV positive ||0.82% (1:123) |
|Receptive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.18% (1:555) |
|Insertive anal sex, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.06% (1:1666) |
|Insertive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.04% (1:2500) |
|Receptive fellatio ||Estimates range from 0.00% to 0.04% (1:2500) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes at least two weeks antiretroviral therapy ||0.8% (1:125) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes combination therapy, viral load below 50 ||0.1% (1:1000) |
|Injecting drug use ||Estimates range from 0.63% (1:158) to 2.4% (1:41) |
|Needlestick injury, no other risk factors ||0.13% (1:769) |
|Blood transfusion with contaminated blood ||92.5% (9:10) |
Sources: vaginal sex;1 anal sex;2 fellatio;3 2 mother-to-child;4 other activities.5
- Boily MC et al. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infect Dis 9(2): 118-129, 2009
- Vittinghoff E et al. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. American Journal of Epidemiology 150: 306-311, 1999
- Del Romero J et al. Evaluating the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected orogenital sex. AIDS 16(9): 1296-1297, 2002
- Townsend C et al. Low rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV following effective pregnancy interventions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 2000-2006. AIDS 22: 973-981, 2008
- Baggaley RF et al. Risk of HIV-1 transmission for parenteral exposure and blood transfusion. AIDS 20: 805-812, 2006
- HIV & AIDS Information :: How transmission occurs - Estimated risk per exposure
HIV Risk (2005 figures)
Estimated per-act risk for acquisition of HIV, by exposure route*
*Estimates of risk for transmission from sexual exposures assume no condom use.
|Exposure route||Risk per 10,000|
to an infected source
|Needle-sharing injection-drug use||67||0.67|
|Receptive anal intercourse||50||0.5|
|Percutaneous needle stick||30||0.3|
|Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse||10||0.1|
|Insertive anal intercourse||6.5||0.065|
|Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse||5||0.05|
|Receptive oral intercourse†||1||0.01|
|Insertive oral intercourse†||0.5||0.005|
†Source refers to oral intercourse performed on a man.
HIV risk (2002 figures)
HIV Risk Statistics (chances of getting HIV)
|HIV Risk Factors ||HIV Transmission Probability |
|Needle stick injury3 ||1/300 |
|Receptive anal intercourse4 ||1/100 |
|Receptive vaginal intercourse5 ||1/1000 |
|Insertive vaginal intercourse4 ||1/2000 |
|Insertive anal intercourse4 ||1/2500 |
|Receptive fellatio with ejaculation4 ||1/2500 |
|Sharing needles6 ||1/150 |
HIV prevention / HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment can prevent you from getting an HIV infection, and turning HIV positive.
- Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, et al. A Case-Control Study of HIV Seroconversion in Health Care Workers after Percutaneous Exposure. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1485-1490.
- Katz MH, Gerberding JL. Management of occupational and nonoccupational postexposure HIV prophylaxis. Current Inf Dis Reports. 2002;4:543-549.
- Gerberding JL. Prophylaxis for Occupational Exposure to HIV. Ann Intern Med. 1996;6:497-501
- Vitinghoff E, Douglas J, Judon F, et al. Per-Contact Risk of Human Immunodificiency Virus Transmision between Male Sexual Partners. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:306-311.
- Peterman TA, Stoneburner RL, Allen JR, et al. Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission From Heterosexual Adults With Transfusion-Associated Infections. JAMA. 1988;259:55-58. [Erratum. JAMA. 1989;262:502]
- Kaplan EH, Heimer R. A Model-Based Estimate of HIV Infectivity via Needle Sharing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1992;5:1116-1118.
Individuals are eligible for HIV PEP Treatment if all the following criteria are met:
Prompt antiviral therapy may reduce the risk of HIV transmission by as much as 80%.
- less than 72 hours has elapsed since exposure;
- the exposed individual is not known to be HIV infected;
- the person who is the source of exposure is HIV infected or has unknown HIV status;
- mucous membrane or non-intact skin was exposed to a potentially infectious body fluid;
For optimal efficacy, antiretroviral therapy should be started as soon as possible, ideally within 1 hour of exposure. So that you can remain HIV negative.
The medications and dosages are the same as those used for lifelong treatment of HIV patients. However, for HIV PEP treatment, it is taken for only a month.
References Drugs commonly used in HIV PEP: References TORCH
(of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.
Efficacy of WHO recommendation for continued breastfeeding and maternal cART for prevention of perinatal and postnatal HIV transmission in Zambia.
Sat, 04 Jul 2015 16:00:03 +0100 | Journal of the International AIDS Society
CONCLUSIONS: Maternal cART may limit MTCT of HIV to the UNAIDS target of <5% for eradication of paediatric HIV within the context of a clinical study, but poor adherence to cART and follow-up can limit the benefit. Continued breastfeeding can prevent the rise in infant mortality after six months seen in previous studies, which encouraged early COB.
CD4:CD8 ratio as a frontier marker for clinical outcome, immune dysfunction and viral reservoir size in virologically suppressed HIV-positive patients.
Sat, 04 Jul 2015 16:00:03 +0100 | Journal of the International AIDS Society
CONCLUSION: The CD4:CD8 ratio can contribute to the immunological evaluation of treated patients in a long-term follow-up and may be applied for monitoring both immune dysfunction and viral reservoir size in immune-based clinical trials.
Natural Hosts of SIV: Implications in AIDS AftabAnsariGuidoSilvestriNatural Hosts of SIV: Implications in AIDS2014Elsevier/Academic Press
Sat, 04 Jul 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | Biologicals
Publication date: July 2015 Source:Biologicals, Volume 43, Issue 4 Author(s): Murray Gardner (Source: Biologicals)
Synthesis of highly interconnected 3D scaffold from Arothron stellatus skin collagen for tissue engineering application
Sat, 04 Jul 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | Micron
Publication date: Available online 3 July 2015 Source:Micron Author(s): Giriprasath Ramanathan , Sivakumar Singaravelu , M.D Raja , Uma Tiruchirapalli Sivagnanam The substrate which is avidly used for tissue engineering applications should have good mechanical and biocompatible properties, and all these parameters are often considered as essential for dermal reformation. Highly interconnected three dimensional (3D) wound dressing material with enhanced structural integrity was synthesized from Arothron stellatus fish skin (AsFS) collagen for tissue engineering applications. The synthesized 3D collagen sponge (COL-SPG) was further characterized by different physicochemical methods. The scanning electron microscopy analysis of the material demonstrated that well interconnected pores with h...
Which Patient Characteristics Among Cocaine Users with HIV Relate to Drug Use and Adherence Outcomes Following a Dual-Focused Intervention?
Fri, 03 Jul 2015 23:13:59 +0100 | AIDS and Behavior
We examined the relationships among baseline demographic, psychological, psychiatric, and behavioral characteristics and 6-months post-study ART adherence, log viral load (VL), ASI Drug Composite Score, and days using cocaine. We used the SAS GLMSELECT procedure to build multivariate models of each post-study outcome. Post-study ART adherence was related to 2 psychological variables; while logVL was related to 2 drug-related behaviors. ASI Drug Composite score was related to 2 psychiatric disorders, 1 demographic, and 1 psychological variable; in contrast, days using cocaine related to 1 behavioral and 3 psychological variables. Analyses show clear, robust relationships among behavioral, psychological and psychiatric diagnosis factors with post-study ART adherence and cocaine use outcomes....
Africa: UNAIDS Board Reiterates the Importance of Accelerating the Pace of the Aids Response to End the Epidemic By 2030
Fri, 03 Jul 2015 15:45:46 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[UNAIDS] Geneva -The 36th meeting of the UNAIDS Programme Coordinating Board has concluded its three-day meeting in Geneva. The Board's discussions focused on the AIDS response in the post-2015 development agenda and on updating and extending the UNAIDS Strategy for the period between 2016 and 2021. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Medical News Today: Preclinical trial data brings new hope for HIV vaccine
Fri, 03 Jul 2015 15:00:00 +0100 | Health News from Medical News Today
Despite many setbacks in the road to developing an effective HIV vaccine, Johnson & Johnson report success in animal trials of their latest attempt. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
South Africa: A Major Boost for HIV Testing in Cape Town
Fri, 03 Jul 2015 14:31:32 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Tutu TB Centre] A campaign to encourage more people to test for HIV has led to hundreds of commuters and taxi drivers flocking to a mobile clinic, consisting of eight tents, set up on the deck of Cape Town's main train station. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Namibia: USAID Grant Expands HIV Testing and Treatment
Fri, 03 Jul 2015 14:26:06 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Namibia Economist] The United States Government, in partnership with the Ministry of Health and Social Services (MOHSS) and faith-based medical services, has launched an important new project to combat HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
ADAMAAS Assistive Glasses for Elderly & Disabled
Fri, 03 Jul 2015 13:38:11 +0100 | Disabled World
A new research project at the Cluster of Excellence Cognitive Interactive Technology (CITEC) in Bielefeld University focuses on the development of a mobile adaptive assistance system in the form of intelligent glasses that provide unobtrusive and intuitive support in everyday situations. (Source: Disabled World)