HIV Window Period | STD TESTING SINGAPORE™
HIV Window Period | STD TESTING SINGAPORE™ @stdtestingsingapore_com: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) window period, Singapore. Private & confidential service.
Come to sunny Singapore to have your testing and treatment. Singapore Ministry of Health registered general practice (GP) clinic:
| SHIM CLINIC|
STD TESTING SINGAPORE™
168 Bedok South Avenue 3 #01-473
Tel: (+65) 6446 7446
Fax: (+65) 6449 7446
24hr Answering Tel: (+65) 6333 5550
Web: HIV Window Period | STD TESTING SINGAPORE™
| Opening Hours |
Monday to Friday: 9 am to 3 pm, 7 pm to 11 pm
Saturday & Sunday: 7 pm to 11 pm
Public Holidays: Closed
Last registration: one hour before closing time.
Walk-in clinic. Appointments not required.
Bring NRIC, Work Pass or Passport for registration.
Table of Contents HIV window period is the time from HIV infection until a HIV Test can detect any change. Within the HIV window period, the HIV Test would be negative. During this period, the HIV viral load is extremely high, thus making the person highly infectious.
References HIV is the abbreviation for the human immunodeficiency virus, which causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
- 4 weeks after exposure, a negative 4th generation HIV ELISA Test "is very reassuring / highly likely to exclude HIV infection."
- 12 weeks after exposure, a negative 3rd generation HIV ELISA Test "would definitively exclude HIV infection."
HIV symptoms which may present in acute HIV infection: These are nonspecific symptoms and can present with other infections; consequently, they are unreliable indicators of HIV infection.
Remember, there is no HIV cure.
| Notes || Sampling Method |
Time to Results
Cost / Price
| 0-72 hours |
No test available
| || |
| 2 weeks (as short as 10-12 days) |
HIV DNA test
- A PCR (polymerase chain reaction) NAT (nucleic acid test) for HIV-1 proviral DNA, therefore a HIV DNA Test.
- Method: Proviral DNA Polymerase Chain Reaction (Roche Amplicor HIV-1 DNA Test, V1.5) This test uses primers SK145 and SKCC1B to define a sequence of 155 nucleotides within a highly conserved region of the HIV-1 gag gene.
- Usually used for the early diagnosis of HIV infection in neonates born to HIV+ mothers. As maternal antibodies circulate in the child for several months, the HIV antibody test would be positive.
- Also used for early HIV diagnosis in adults.
| 1 month |
HIV combo test
| || Fingerprick |
HIV rapid test
| 1 month |
HIV duo test
| || Venipuncture|
| 3 months |
| || HIV oral test /|
HIV saliva test /
HIV rapid test
| 3 months |
HIV blood test
| || Venipuncture |
HIV western blot test
| || Venipuncture |
HIV RNA test
| || Venipuncture|
HIV ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test generations:
References HIV rapid test (20 minutes to results) Two types are available:
- 1st generation: HIV-1 IgG antibody
- 2nd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG antibodies
- 3rd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies
- 4th generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies and HIV p24 antigen
Note: If the clinic attendance is only for the HIV rapid test, then consultation fees are not added.
References HIV PCR (polymerase chain reaction) NAT (nucleic acid test) HIV Risk (2009 figures)
Estimated HIV transmission risk per exposure for specific activities and events
Sources: vaginal sex;1 anal sex;2 fellatio;3 2 mother-to-child;4 other activities.5
|Activity ||Risk-per-exposure |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in high-income countries ||0.04% (1:2380) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in high-income countries ||0.08% (1:1234) |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in low-income countries ||0.38% (1:263) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in low-income countries ||0.30% (1:333) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner is asymptomatic ||0.07% (1:1428) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner has late-stage disease ||0.55% (1:180) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner unknown status ||0.27% (1:370) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner HIV positive ||0.82% (1:123) |
|Receptive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.18% (1:555) |
|Insertive anal sex, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.06% (1:1666) |
|Insertive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.04% (1:2500) |
|Receptive fellatio ||Estimates range from 0.00% to 0.04% (1:2500) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes at least two weeks antiretroviral therapy ||0.8% (1:125) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes combination therapy, viral load below 50 ||0.1% (1:1000) |
|Injecting drug use ||Estimates range from 0.63% (1:158) to 2.4% (1:41) |
|Needlestick injury, no other risk factors ||0.13% (1:769) |
|Blood transfusion with contaminated blood ||92.5% (9:10) |
HIV Risk (2005 figures)
- Boily MC et al. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infect Dis 9(2): 118-129, 2009
- Vittinghoff E et al. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. American Journal of Epidemiology 150: 306-311, 1999
- Del Romero J et al. Evaluating the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected orogenital sex. AIDS 16(9): 1296-1297, 2002
- Townsend C et al. Low rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV following effective pregnancy interventions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 2000-2006. AIDS 22: 973-981, 2008
- Baggaley RF et al. Risk of HIV-1 transmission for parenteral exposure and blood transfusion. AIDS 20: 805-812, 2006
- HIV & AIDS Information :: How transmission occurs - Estimated risk per exposure
Estimated per-act risk for acquisition of HIV, by exposure route*
*Estimates of risk for transmission from sexual exposures assume no condom use.
|Exposure route||Risk per 10,000|
to an infected source
|Needle-sharing injection-drug use||67||0.67|
|Receptive anal intercourse||50||0.5|
|Percutaneous needle stick||30||0.3|
|Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse||10||0.1|
|Insertive anal intercourse||6.5||0.065|
|Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse||5||0.05|
|Receptive oral intercourse†||1||0.01|
|Insertive oral intercourse†||0.5||0.005|
†Source refers to oral intercourse performed on a man.
References HIV risk (2002 figures)
HIV Risk Statistics (chances of getting HIV)
|HIV Risk Factors ||HIV Transmission Probability |
|Needle stick injury3 ||1/300 |
|Receptive anal intercourse4 ||1/100 |
|Receptive vaginal intercourse5 ||1/1000 |
|Insertive vaginal intercourse4 ||1/2000 |
|Insertive anal intercourse4 ||1/2500 |
|Receptive fellatio with ejaculation4 ||1/2500 |
|Sharing needles6 ||1/150 |
HIV prevention / HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment can prevent you from getting an HIV infection, and turning HIV positive.
- Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, et al. A Case-Control Study of HIV Seroconversion in Health Care Workers after Percutaneous Exposure. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1485-1490.
- Katz MH, Gerberding JL. Management of occupational and nonoccupational postexposure HIV prophylaxis. Current Inf Dis Reports. 2002;4:543-549.
- Gerberding JL. Prophylaxis for Occupational Exposure to HIV. Ann Intern Med. 1996;6:497-501
- Vitinghoff E, Douglas J, Judon F, et al. Per-Contact Risk of Human Immunodificiency Virus Transmision between Male Sexual Partners. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:306-311.
- Peterman TA, Stoneburner RL, Allen JR, et al. Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission From Heterosexual Adults With Transfusion-Associated Infections. JAMA. 1988;259:55-58. [Erratum. JAMA. 1989;262:502]
- Kaplan EH, Heimer R. A Model-Based Estimate of HIV Infectivity via Needle Sharing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1992;5:1116-1118.
Individuals are eligible for HIV PEP Treatment if all the following criteria are met:
Prompt antiviral therapy may reduce the risk of HIV transmission by as much as 80%.
- less than 72 hours has elapsed since exposure;
- the exposed individual is not known to be HIV infected;
- the person who is the source of exposure is HIV infected or has unknown HIV status;
- mucous membrane or non-intact skin was exposed to a potentially infectious body fluid;
For optimal efficacy, antiretroviral therapy should be started as soon as possible, ideally within 1 hour of exposure. So that you can remain HIV negative.
The medications and dosages are the same as those used for lifelong treatment of HIV patients. However, for HIV PEP treatment, it is taken for only a month.
References Drugs commonly used in HIV PEP: References TORCH
(of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.
HIV: new drugs, new guidelines
Fri, 31 Oct 2014 20:53:14 +0100 | Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Purpose of reviewThis review discusses recent changes in HIV treatment guidelines, focussing on the optimal time for starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in chronic asymptomatic infection, and treatment options for ART-naïve patients.
Africa: Johannes Hunger Appointed As Head of Strategic Information
Fri, 31 Oct 2014 15:22:17 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Global Fund]Geneva -The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria announced the appointment of Johannes Hunger, an expert on strategic and policy planning in global health, as Head of Strategic Information. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
What Couples Say about Their Recovery of Sexual Intimacy after Prostatectomy: Toward the Development of a Conceptual Model of Couples' Sexual Recovery after Surgery for Prostate Cancer
Fri, 31 Oct 2014 15:10:18 +0100 | The Journal of Sexual Medicine
ConclusionsCouples' sexual recovery requires addressing sexual function, feelings about losses, and relationship simultaneously. Perioperative education should emphasize the roles of nerve damage in ED and grief and mourning in sexual recovery. Wittmann D, Carolan M, Given B, Skolarus TA, Crossley H, An L, Palapattu G, Clark P, and Montie JE. What couples say about their recovery of sexual intimacy after prostatectomy: Toward the development of a conceptual model of couples' sexual recovery after surgery for prostate cancer. J Sex Med **;**:**–**. (Source: The Journal of Sexual Medicine)
Zimbabwe: ARM Advocates With the Appropriate Facts So That They Can Drive Change in Their Own Countries
Fri, 31 Oct 2014 15:06:11 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[What'sUpHIV]Maureen Milanga, a staffer at Health GAP in Keyna and an alumna of the AVAC Advocacy Fellows program, presented a poster demonstrating how advocates from Kenya, Zimbabwe and Nigeria were able to influence their countries by strategically raising their voices to increase demand for key interventions. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: A Reminder of Scientific Progress (Past, Present and Future)
Fri, 31 Oct 2014 15:06:03 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[What'sUpHIV]A man caught my eye this week. It's somewhat fitting that a symbol of "human endeavour" (per the artist) is bearing witness to this week's HIV R4P Conference - itself a testimony to ongoing global efforts to push the boundaries of HIV prevention science. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: So When Will the Next Big Thing Be Available for General Use?
Fri, 31 Oct 2014 15:02:25 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[What'sUpHIV]The one question research scientists dread most - but one which journalists are obliged to ask - is, "So when will this be available for general use?" (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: HIV Self-Test Kit Coming Soon
Fri, 31 Oct 2014 14:02:34 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[What'sUpHIV]If you like movies at all, by now you will have seen - many times - the scene in romantic comedies in which a woman walks into her bathroom to perform a simple test which will tell her (with a high degree of accuracy) whether or not she is pregnant. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uganda: Poor Roads Disrupt HIV Patients' Access to Treatment
Fri, 31 Oct 2014 13:47:32 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Key Correspondents]Poor roads in Uganda, especially at landing sites at Kigugo Island, are making it difficult for HIV positive patients to access antiretroviral treatment at St Francis Hospital in Nkokonjeru. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Ebola virus disease – Mali
Fri, 31 Oct 2014 13:45:00 +0100 | WHO Disease Outbreaks
On 23 October 2014, WHO was notified by Mali's Ministry of Health of a laboratory-confirmed case of infection with Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). This is the first EVD case in Mali. The case is a 2-year-old female who developed symptoms, presumably on 19 October 2014, while in Beuila, Guinea and then travelled across by road to Mali. On 20 October 2014, the patient was admitted to a healthcare facility in Kayes, Mali. On 21 October 2014, she was referred to the Fousseyni Daou Hospital in Kayes. On 22 October 2014, samples for EVD were taken and analysed at the Center for TB and AIDS Research in Mali. Samples came back positive for EVD. Confirmation of test results is being carried out at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta and at Institute Pasteur de Dakar Senegal. ...
Africa: How to Make Sure Your Research Centre Doesn't Get Burnt Down
Fri, 31 Oct 2014 13:26:27 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[What'sUpHIV]Crossroads in Cape Town is your classic African "tough neighbourhood". It is a shanty town - a slum. So how do you go about getting volunteers from a place like that - a place in which all authority is usually viewed with doubt and suspicion - to participate in clinical trial which involves such potentially sensitive interventions as "vaginal rings", "vaginal gels" and "vaginal microbicides"? (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)