HIV Window Period | STD TESTING SINGAPORE™
HIV Window Period | STD TESTING SINGAPORE™ @stdtestingsingapore_com: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) window period, Singapore. Private & confidential service.
Come to sunny Singapore to have your testing and treatment. Singapore Ministry of Health registered general practice (GP) clinic:
| SHIM CLINIC|
STD TESTING SINGAPORE™
168 Bedok South Avenue 3 #01-473
Tel: (+65) 6446 7446
Fax: (+65) 6449 7446
24hr Answering Tel: (+65) 6333 5550
Web: HIV Window Period | STD TESTING SINGAPORE™
| Opening Hours |
Monday to Friday: 9 am to 3 pm, 7 pm to 11 pm
Saturday & Sunday: 7 pm to 11 pm
Public Holidays: Closed
Last registration: one hour before closing time.
Walk-in clinic. Appointments not required.
Bring NRIC, Work Pass or Passport for registration.
Table of Contents HIV window period is the time from HIV infection until a HIV Test can detect any change. Within the HIV window period, the HIV Test would be negative. During this period, the HIV viral load is extremely high, thus making the person highly infectious.
References HIV is the abbreviation for the human immunodeficiency virus, which causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
- 4 weeks after exposure, a negative 4th generation HIV ELISA Test "is very reassuring / highly likely to exclude HIV infection."
- 12 weeks after exposure, a negative 3rd generation HIV ELISA Test "would definitively exclude HIV infection."
HIV symptoms which may present in acute HIV infection: These are nonspecific symptoms and can present with other infections; consequently, they are unreliable indicators of HIV infection.
Remember, there is no HIV cure.
HIV Test / HIV Testing / HIV Check / HIV Checking / HIV Screen / HIV Screening
HIV ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test generations:
References HIV rapid test (20 minutes to results) Two types are available:
- 1st generation: HIV-1 IgG antibody
- 2nd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG antibodies
- 3rd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies
- 4th generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies and HIV p24 antigen
Note: If the clinic attendance is only for the HIV rapid test, then consultation fees are not added.
References HIV PCR (polymerase chain reaction) NAT (nucleic acid test) HIV Risk (2009 figures)
Estimated HIV transmission risk per exposure for specific activities and events
|Activity ||Risk-per-exposure |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in high-income countries ||0.04% (1:2380) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in high-income countries ||0.08% (1:1234) |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in low-income countries ||0.38% (1:263) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in low-income countries ||0.30% (1:333) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner is asymptomatic ||0.07% (1:1428) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner has late-stage disease ||0.55% (1:180) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner unknown status ||0.27% (1:370) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner HIV positive ||0.82% (1:123) |
|Receptive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.18% (1:555) |
|Insertive anal sex, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.06% (1:1666) |
|Insertive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.04% (1:2500) |
|Receptive fellatio ||Estimates range from 0.00% to 0.04% (1:2500) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes at least two weeks antiretroviral therapy ||0.8% (1:125) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes combination therapy, viral load below 50 ||0.1% (1:1000) |
|Injecting drug use ||Estimates range from 0.63% (1:158) to 2.4% (1:41) |
|Needlestick injury, no other risk factors ||0.13% (1:769) |
|Blood transfusion with contaminated blood ||92.5% (9:10) |
Sources: vaginal sex;1 anal sex;2 fellatio;3 2 mother-to-child;4 other activities.5
- Boily MC et al. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infect Dis 9(2): 118-129, 2009
- Vittinghoff E et al. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. American Journal of Epidemiology 150: 306-311, 1999
- Del Romero J et al. Evaluating the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected orogenital sex. AIDS 16(9): 1296-1297, 2002
- Townsend C et al. Low rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV following effective pregnancy interventions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 2000-2006. AIDS 22: 973-981, 2008
- Baggaley RF et al. Risk of HIV-1 transmission for parenteral exposure and blood transfusion. AIDS 20: 805-812, 2006
- HIV & AIDS Information :: How transmission occurs - Estimated risk per exposure
HIV Risk (2005 figures)
Estimated per-act risk for acquisition of HIV, by exposure route*
*Estimates of risk for transmission from sexual exposures assume no condom use.
|Exposure route||Risk per 10,000|
to an infected source
|Needle-sharing injection-drug use||67||0.67|
|Receptive anal intercourse||50||0.5|
|Percutaneous needle stick||30||0.3|
|Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse||10||0.1|
|Insertive anal intercourse||6.5||0.065|
|Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse||5||0.05|
|Receptive oral intercourse†||1||0.01|
|Insertive oral intercourse†||0.5||0.005|
†Source refers to oral intercourse performed on a man.
HIV risk (2002 figures)
HIV Risk Statistics (chances of getting HIV)
|HIV Risk Factors ||HIV Transmission Probability |
|Needle stick injury3 ||1/300 |
|Receptive anal intercourse4 ||1/100 |
|Receptive vaginal intercourse5 ||1/1000 |
|Insertive vaginal intercourse4 ||1/2000 |
|Insertive anal intercourse4 ||1/2500 |
|Receptive fellatio with ejaculation4 ||1/2500 |
|Sharing needles6 ||1/150 |
HIV prevention / HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment can prevent you from getting an HIV infection, and turning HIV positive.
- Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, et al. A Case-Control Study of HIV Seroconversion in Health Care Workers after Percutaneous Exposure. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1485-1490.
- Katz MH, Gerberding JL. Management of occupational and nonoccupational postexposure HIV prophylaxis. Current Inf Dis Reports. 2002;4:543-549.
- Gerberding JL. Prophylaxis for Occupational Exposure to HIV. Ann Intern Med. 1996;6:497-501
- Vitinghoff E, Douglas J, Judon F, et al. Per-Contact Risk of Human Immunodificiency Virus Transmision between Male Sexual Partners. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:306-311.
- Peterman TA, Stoneburner RL, Allen JR, et al. Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission From Heterosexual Adults With Transfusion-Associated Infections. JAMA. 1988;259:55-58. [Erratum. JAMA. 1989;262:502]
- Kaplan EH, Heimer R. A Model-Based Estimate of HIV Infectivity via Needle Sharing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1992;5:1116-1118.
Individuals are eligible for HIV PEP Treatment if all the following criteria are met:
Prompt antiviral therapy may reduce the risk of HIV transmission by as much as 80%.
- less than 72 hours has elapsed since exposure;
- the exposed individual is not known to be HIV infected;
- the person who is the source of exposure is HIV infected or has unknown HIV status;
- mucous membrane or non-intact skin was exposed to a potentially infectious body fluid;
For optimal efficacy, antiretroviral therapy should be started as soon as possible, ideally within 1 hour of exposure. So that you can remain HIV negative.
The medications and dosages are the same as those used for lifelong treatment of HIV patients. However, for HIV PEP treatment, it is taken for only a month.
References Drugs commonly used in HIV PEP: References TORCH
(of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.
[Obituary] Alan Jurgen Brotherton
Fri, 31 Jul 2015 13:16:33 +0100 | LANCET
Activist who helped to shape HIV/AIDS policy in Australia and beyond. He was born in Middlesbrough, UK, on July 9, 1963, and died of a brain tumour in Sydney, Australia, on June 12, 2015, aged 51 years. (Source: LANCET)
Large Study Backs Switch to Next-Gen Tenofovir for HIVLarge Study Backs Switch to Next-Gen Tenofovir for HIV
Fri, 31 Jul 2015 12:16:45 +0100 | Medscape Infectious Diseases Headlines
Tenofovir alafenamide is as effective as the standard formulation in maintaining viral suppression over 48 weeks, and might have bone- and renal-sparing effects, report investigators. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Infectious Diseases Headlines)
Africa: Social Progress Birds Eye View
Fri, 31 Jul 2015 12:04:39 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Ethiopian Herald] Closing his historic visit to Ethiopia and Africa, President Barack Obama praised Africa for its extraordinary progress in all fronts. "Millions have been lifted from extreme poverty. Africa has led the world in sending more children to school. In clear terms, more and more African men, women and children are living with dignity and hope." (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Obama's Triumphant Return to Kenya As President
Fri, 31 Jul 2015 10:58:29 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Fahamu] US foreign policy vis-à-vis Africa has always been transactional. The bottom line is that the value of Africa for the United States is essentially how to mitigate global terrorism and other issues like AIDS and Ebola that could harm US national security. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Hepatitis Virus More Infectious Than HIV - FG
Fri, 31 Jul 2015 10:08:07 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Leadership] Abuja -Federal government has warned that hepatitis A, B, C, D and E are 50 to 100 times more infectious than the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zambia: 23 Babies Born With HIV Daily Says UNAIDS
Fri, 31 Jul 2015 09:38:40 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Key Correspondents] UNAIDS' Zambia country director says that despite good progress made in responding to HIV in the last ten years, Zambia is ranked tenth globally for the highest number of people living with HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
An Acceptability and Feasibility Study of Decision Aids for Patients and Their Caregivers Considering Destination Therapy Left Ventricular Assist Device
Fri, 31 Jul 2015 07:51:17 +0100 | Journal of Cardiac Failure
Shared decision making is important for preference-sensitive decisions such as destination therapy left ventricular assist device (DT LVAD). Based upon a detailed needs assessment with diverse stakeholders, pamphlet and video decision aids (DAs) for DT LVAD were developed to help patients and their caregivers think through, forecast, and deliberate their options. These DAs are the foundation of the DECIDE-LVAD project, a randomized-controlled trial aimed at understanding the effectiveness and implementation of a shared decision support intervention for patients considering DT LVAD. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Burden of Heart Failure and Treatment Practices Among Patients with HIV Infection in an Era of Contemporary Antiretroviral Therapy
Fri, 31 Jul 2015 07:50:48 +0100 | Journal of Cardiac Failure
Patients living with HIV are at a higher risk of cardiovascular disease despite effective antiretroviral therapy and dramatic reductions in AIDS-related conditions such as cardiomyopathy. We sought to identify the burden and medical management of HF among HIV patients in the United States in an era of contemporary antiretroviral therapy. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Treatment of Chronic HCV Genotype 1 Coinfection
Fri, 31 Jul 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Updated National HIV/AIDS Strategy Released
Fri, 31 Jul 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)
The White House Office of National AIDS Policy has released the National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States: Updated to 2020. This is the first update of the strategy since it was initially released in 2010. Designed to look ahead to 2020, the update includes revised steps and recommendations to meet the strategy goals.