HIV Window Period | STD TESTING SINGAPORE™
HIV Window Period | STD TESTING SINGAPORE™ @stdtestingsingapore_com: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) window period, Singapore. Private & confidential service.
Come to sunny Singapore to have your testing and treatment. Singapore Ministry of Health registered general practice (GP) clinic:
| SHIM CLINIC|
STD TESTING SINGAPORE™
168 Bedok South Avenue 3 #01-473
Tel: (+65) 6446 7446
Fax: (+65) 6449 7446
24hr Answering Tel: (+65) 6333 5550
Web: HIV Window Period | STD TESTING SINGAPORE™
| Opening Hours |
Monday to Friday: 9 am to 3 pm, 7 pm to 11 pm
Saturday & Sunday: 7 pm to 11 pm
Public Holidays: Closed
Last registration: one hour before closing time.
Walk-in clinic. Appointments not required.
Bring NRIC, Work Pass or Passport for registration.
Table of Contents HIV window period is the time from HIV infection until a HIV Test can detect any change. Within the HIV window period, the HIV Test would be negative. During this period, the HIV viral load is extremely high, thus making the person highly infectious.
References HIV is the abbreviation for the human immunodeficiency virus, which causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
- 4 weeks after exposure, a negative 4th generation HIV ELISA Test "is very reassuring / highly likely to exclude HIV infection."
- 12 weeks after exposure, a negative 3rd generation HIV ELISA Test "would definitively exclude HIV infection."
HIV symptoms which may present in acute HIV infection: These are nonspecific symptoms and can present with other infections; consequently, they are unreliable indicators of HIV infection.
Remember, there is no HIV cure.
HIV ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test generations:
References HIV rapid test (20 minutes to results) Two types are available:
- 1st generation: HIV-1 IgG antibody
- 2nd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG antibodies
- 3rd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies
- 4th generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies and HIV p24 antigen
Note: If the clinic attendance is only for the HIV rapid test, then consultation fees are not added.
References HIV PCR (polymerase chain reaction) NAT (nucleic acid test) HIV Risk (2009 figures)
Estimated HIV transmission risk per exposure for specific activities and events
|Activity ||Risk-per-exposure |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in high-income countries ||0.04% (1:2380) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in high-income countries ||0.08% (1:1234) |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in low-income countries ||0.38% (1:263) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in low-income countries ||0.30% (1:333) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner is asymptomatic ||0.07% (1:1428) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner has late-stage disease ||0.55% (1:180) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner unknown status ||0.27% (1:370) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner HIV positive ||0.82% (1:123) |
|Receptive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.18% (1:555) |
|Insertive anal sex, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.06% (1:1666) |
|Insertive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.04% (1:2500) |
|Receptive fellatio ||Estimates range from 0.00% to 0.04% (1:2500) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes at least two weeks antiretroviral therapy ||0.8% (1:125) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes combination therapy, viral load below 50 ||0.1% (1:1000) |
|Injecting drug use ||Estimates range from 0.63% (1:158) to 2.4% (1:41) |
|Needlestick injury, no other risk factors ||0.13% (1:769) |
|Blood transfusion with contaminated blood ||92.5% (9:10) |
Sources: vaginal sex;1 anal sex;2 fellatio;3 2 mother-to-child;4 other activities.5
- Boily MC et al. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infect Dis 9(2): 118-129, 2009
- Vittinghoff E et al. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. American Journal of Epidemiology 150: 306-311, 1999
- Del Romero J et al. Evaluating the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected orogenital sex. AIDS 16(9): 1296-1297, 2002
- Townsend C et al. Low rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV following effective pregnancy interventions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 2000-2006. AIDS 22: 973-981, 2008
- Baggaley RF et al. Risk of HIV-1 transmission for parenteral exposure and blood transfusion. AIDS 20: 805-812, 2006
- HIV & AIDS Information :: How transmission occurs - Estimated risk per exposure
HIV Risk (2005 figures)
Estimated per-act risk for acquisition of HIV, by exposure route*
*Estimates of risk for transmission from sexual exposures assume no condom use.
|Exposure route||Risk per 10,000|
to an infected source
|Needle-sharing injection-drug use||67||0.67|
|Receptive anal intercourse||50||0.5|
|Percutaneous needle stick||30||0.3|
|Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse||10||0.1|
|Insertive anal intercourse||6.5||0.065|
|Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse||5||0.05|
|Receptive oral intercourse†||1||0.01|
|Insertive oral intercourse†||0.5||0.005|
†Source refers to oral intercourse performed on a man.
HIV risk (2002 figures)
HIV Risk Statistics (chances of getting HIV)
|HIV Risk Factors ||HIV Transmission Probability |
|Needle stick injury3 ||1/300 |
|Receptive anal intercourse4 ||1/100 |
|Receptive vaginal intercourse5 ||1/1000 |
|Insertive vaginal intercourse4 ||1/2000 |
|Insertive anal intercourse4 ||1/2500 |
|Receptive fellatio with ejaculation4 ||1/2500 |
|Sharing needles6 ||1/150 |
HIV prevention / HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment can prevent you from getting an HIV infection, and turning HIV positive.
- Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, et al. A Case-Control Study of HIV Seroconversion in Health Care Workers after Percutaneous Exposure. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1485-1490.
- Katz MH, Gerberding JL. Management of occupational and nonoccupational postexposure HIV prophylaxis. Current Inf Dis Reports. 2002;4:543-549.
- Gerberding JL. Prophylaxis for Occupational Exposure to HIV. Ann Intern Med. 1996;6:497-501
- Vitinghoff E, Douglas J, Judon F, et al. Per-Contact Risk of Human Immunodificiency Virus Transmision between Male Sexual Partners. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:306-311.
- Peterman TA, Stoneburner RL, Allen JR, et al. Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission From Heterosexual Adults With Transfusion-Associated Infections. JAMA. 1988;259:55-58. [Erratum. JAMA. 1989;262:502]
- Kaplan EH, Heimer R. A Model-Based Estimate of HIV Infectivity via Needle Sharing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1992;5:1116-1118.
Individuals are eligible for HIV PEP Treatment if all the following criteria are met:
Prompt antiviral therapy may reduce the risk of HIV transmission by as much as 80%.
- less than 72 hours has elapsed since exposure;
- the exposed individual is not known to be HIV infected;
- the person who is the source of exposure is HIV infected or has unknown HIV status;
- mucous membrane or non-intact skin was exposed to a potentially infectious body fluid;
For optimal efficacy, antiretroviral therapy should be started as soon as possible, ideally within 1 hour of exposure. So that you can remain HIV negative.
The medications and dosages are the same as those used for lifelong treatment of HIV patients. However, for HIV PEP treatment, it is taken for only a month.
References Drugs commonly used in HIV PEP: References TORCH
(of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.
Nutritional status and its association with quality of life among people living with HIV attending public anti-retroviral therapy sites of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.
Wed, 06 May 2015 22:50:04 +0100 | AIDS Research and Therapy
CONCLUSION: Nutrition interventions should form an integral part of HIV care programs. Understanding the presence of OI, decline in CD4 count, and advancing WHO clinical stages as risk factors can be helpful in preventing under nutrition from developing. Longitudinal research is necessary to further explicate associations between nutritional status and QoL.
Nigeria: Malaria - WDI Facilitates Free Treatment in Alimosho
Wed, 06 May 2015 13:07:26 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[Vanguard] In a bid to reduce absenteeism from work and eliminate the scourge of malaria, Westfield Development Initiative, WDI a non-governmental orgainsation has offered free malaria treatment to the resident of Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos state. The programme which has over 700 people in attendance offer free malaria treatment, HIV/AIDs screening, blood pressure test, blood sugar tests, and free insecticide treated mosquito nets. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Liberia: 'Together We Can End HIV in the Post 2015 Era'
Wed, 06 May 2015 09:41:48 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[New Republic] President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf has called on all Liberians to end the spread of HIV infection as part of the country's post 2015 development agenda. The president made the call Tuesday April 28, 2015 at the National AIDS Commission (NAC) Board of Directors Meeting held in the C. Cecil Dennis, Jr. Auditorium of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Monrovia. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Cancer Risk and Combination Antiretroviral TherapyCancer Risk and Combination Antiretroviral Therapy
Wed, 06 May 2015 05:20:36 +0100 | Medscape Today Headlines
How does combination ART affect the risk of cancer? JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Lower Efavirenz Dose Effective in HIVLower Efavirenz Dose Effective in HIV
Wed, 06 May 2015 02:56:00 +0100 | Medscape Medical News Headlines
Starting daily HIV treatment with efavirenz 400 mg rather than 600 mg may offer advantages, according to extended analysis of the non-inferiority ENCORE1 trial. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
A systematic review of hepatic tuberculosis with considerations in human immunodeficiency virus co-infection
Wed, 06 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | BMC Infectious Diseases
The successful use of dronabinol for failure to thrive secondary to intestinal dysmotility
Wed, 06 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Conclusion Dronabinol has the potential to improve quality of life for patients beyond those undergoing chemotherapy or suffering from AIDS. Lack of access to this medicine for patients with intestinal dysmotility after all other modalities have been tried can lead to morbid and expensive complications, such as inpatient admission and surgery for enteral access. (Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports)
Evaluation of antiretroviral treatment programme monitoring in Eastern Cape, South Africa
Wed, 06 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | Health Policy and Planning
Conclusions Recommendations to address the inaccuracy of ART programme data include improving knowledge translation during training of ART programme staff, ensuring the implementation of established data verification policies and procedures, rethinking the design of the programme to reduce the burden on health facilities and personnel, and standardizing information management procedures amongst the various governmental and non-governmental stakeholders. The challenges with reporting in the Eastern Cape may be shared by other South African provinces as well as other low-middle income countries that require high quality data to inform well-designed and well-implemented interventions in the fight against HIV/AIDS. (Source: Health Policy and Planning)
The correlation between perceived social support and illness uncertainty in people with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Iran
Wed, 06 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | Indian Journal of Palliative Care
Conclusion: Uncertainty is a serious aspect of illness experience in Iranian PLWH. Providing adequate, structured information to patients as well as opportunities to discuss their concerns with other PLWH and receive emotional support from their health care providers may be worthwhile. (Source: Indian Journal of Palliative Care)
The teaching portfolio as a professional development tool for anaesthetists
Tue, 05 May 2015 23:48:30 +0100 | Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
This article explains why and how anaesthetists might use a TP as a tool for professional development in medical education. (Source: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care)